Judaism is a monotheistic religion that centers around God's teachings. Their focal sacred text is the Torah which contains 613 commandments. Judaism stresses on free will, righteous actions and the belief that what you put out to the world will be returned to you e.g being good means you will receive good.
The synagogue is a house of worship for the Jews. It can act as a place to study, and often as a community center as well.
I recognize that their belief in one God is similar to my catholic beliefs in one God who has created us all. The Torah's purpose is similar to our bible and their synagogue is reminiscent of our church.
The old testament is an exact extraction from the Jewish Torah which suggests that Catholicism shared original values and beliefs with Judaism.
Jesus, along with many other biblical characters were Jewish which explains why the bible has so many references to Jewish traditions and leaders e.g Passover - a celebration day for the freedom of the Israelite slaves of Egypt.
Judaism values Moses as one of the greatest prophets, he upholds this status in Catholicism as well.